Download this advocacy guide (updated July 2023; 16 pages; pdf)
Link to A Guide to New Mexico’s Tax System
Link to A Guide to the New Mexico State Budget
Link to the Advocate’s Guide to the New Mexico State Budget


Advocacy is a form of civic participation – much like voting. When you vote, you send a message about which people you want representing you in office. Advocacy is taking your vote a step further. It’s telling your elected officials what issues you’d like them to act on and how. Advocacy can be as quick and easy as sending a brief email, for example. Or it can be more involved, encompassing anything from chatting over coffee with your city councilor to meeting with your congressional representative on Capitol Hill.

While some people like to complain and be cynical about the political world, others are advocating for change, making life better, and bringing hope to their communities. If you’re one of the latter, this guide will give you some tools for working with your elected officials so that they work better for you.

Some Tips for Using This Guide

Words that appear in boldface are defined in the blue Technical Terms boxes for easy reference. The Advocacy Etiquette boxes contain handy tips. All of the acronyms used in this guide are written out below.

LCS – Legislative Council Services
LFC – Legislative Finance Committee
FIR – Fiscal Impact Report

How Our State Government Works

Elections and Terms of Service

Just like the U.S. government, the state government has three branches: the executive (the governor), legislative
(the Legislature), and the judiciary (state supreme and district courts). The legislative branch passes laws and the budget for the state. The executive branch either approves or vetoes new laws, approves or vetoes line items in the budget, and then assures that the budget and laws are followed.

Like the U.S. president, New Mexico’s governor and lieutenant governor are elected every four years and may serve no more than two consecutive four-year terms. Unlike the president, the governor and lieutenant governor may serve more than two terms, as long as no more than two of their terms are consecutive.

Like the U.S. Congress, New Mexico’s Legislature is made up of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. In Congress, each House member represents a specific district within a state, while senators represent the whole state. In New Mexico’s Legislature, House and Senate members both represent districts within the state.

The 70 members of the state House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, while the 42 members of the state Senate serve four-year terms. Like in Congress, the entire House is up for re-election every other year. Unlike in Congress, state Senate terms are not staggered, so every four years both the House and Senate come up for re-election. However, elections for the governor and the Senate are staggered – meaning they never occur in the same year.

Each senator represents about 40,000 people (or about 22,000 voters); each representative about 24,000 people (or about 13,000 voters). We have a “citizen legislature,” meaning state senators and representatives receive no salary for serving, only a per diem to cover their travel, accommodation, and food expenses during the legislative session. They also work in between sessions (called the “interim”) when the committees to which they belong hold hearings. You can find out who your senator and representative are by going to the Legislature’s website (the address is listed in the Resources section of this book).

The State Legislature

The New Mexico state Legislature meets for a 60-day regular session in odd-numbered years and for a 30-day regular session in even-numbered years. Regardless of the length of the session, it always begins on the third Tuesday of January. Sixty-day sessions consider any and all legislative matters, while 30-day sessions are limited to budgetary matters and those items placed on the governor’s agenda, or “call.”

The governor can call a special session to deal with emergency legislation that needs attention before the next regular session. The governor controls the agenda for special sessions. The Legislature may also call itself into an extraordinary session to consider their own attempt to override a governor’s veto. Extraordinary sessions require approval of two-thirds of the Legislature.

Technical Terms
Regular session – The 30- or 60-day session that begins in mid-January.
Special session – An emergency session called by the governor.
Extraordinary session – An emergency session called by the Legislature.

As with the U.S. Congress, each chamber of the state Legislature has a leader who is elected from the majority party (the political party that holds the most seats) by the members of that chamber. The leader of the Senate is called the Senate President Pro Tempore. In the House, the leader is the Speaker of the House. The leadership sets the agenda and appoints the chairs of committees. Under the Speaker and the President Pro Tem are the Majority Leader and the Majority Whip in each chamber. The minority party is represented by the Minority Leader and the Minority Whip. The job of the Whip is to round up members for important votes. Just as the vice president presides over the U.S. Senate, the lieutenant governor presides over the state Senate, casting tie-breaking votes when necessary.

Technical Terms
Senate President Pro Tempore – The highest-ranking member of the Senate, elected by all the members of the Senate.
Speaker of the House – The highest-ranking member of the House of Representatives, elected by all the members of the House.
Majority or Minority Leader – The second-in-command for the majority party; the highest-ranking member for the minority party.
Majority or Minority Whip – The member in charge of rounding up votes.
Lieutenant governor – Takes the governor’s place when they are out of the state, presides over the Senate and casts the deciding vote in the Senate in case of a tie.

All legislators serve on committees both during the session and the interim. Each committee is run by its chair or co-chairs and has a vice chair. Senate committees also have ranking members and some House committees have deputy chairs. Senate committee members are appointed by the Committee’s Committee, while House members are appointed by the Speaker. The committees that meet during the regular session are called standing committees, and each is comprised of either senators or representatives. Committees are very powerful bodies because they hear legislation before it is considered by the full House or Senate. (See the Appendix for a list of the committees.)

Interim committees of the Legislature meet between sessions (generally beginning in June) to hear reports on past actions, provide oversight to state agencies, discuss important issues, and prepare legislation for the regular session. Interim committees are comprised of members of both the House and Senate.

The Legislature is supported by full-time staff members and several agencies. The main agency is the Legislative Council Service (LCS), which drafts bills and supplies legal information, research, and technical support. The LCS also produces a variety of publications including the Daily Bill Finder and operates the legislative library, which is open for public use.

Citizen Input

Citizens can contact the offices of their legislators and governor at any time of the year and ask to speak with them personally about their concerns. For the most part they make themselves very accessible to their constituents and are pleased that citizens take an active interest in issues. You can contact legislators about issues by phone, fax, email or by visiting with them in person.

Interim committee meetings and committee hearings during a regular session also provide good opportunities for citizens to express their views on specific proposed legislation. How to provide this input is discussed in more detail later in this guide.

Bills, Memorials and Resolutions

Legislation can be introduced in the form of a bill, memorial or resolution.

A bill is a change in law or an appropriation of funds for a specific purpose. Bills require passage in both chambers and the signature of the governor.

A memorial is a way of honoring or acknowledging a group or individual, petitioning Congress or other government agencies, or, most commonly, asking a state agency to study an issue. A House or Senate memorial requires passage only in that chamber while a joint memorial requires passage in both chambers. Memorials do not require the governor’s signature.

A resolution is a proposal to amend the state constitution by taking the proposed amendment to the voters. Amending the state constitution requires passage of the resolution in both chambers and then approval by a majority of voters in the next general election. A resolution does not require action by the governor.

Technical Terms
Bill – A change in law or an appropriation of funds for a specific purpose.
Memorial – A way of honoring or acknowledging a group or individual, petitioning Congress or other government agencies, or asking a state agency to study an issue.
Resolution – A proposal to amend the state constitution by taking the proposed amendment to the voters.

How a Bill Becomes Law

The idea for a bill can come from anyone. Often it is a citizen who identifies a need and makes a request of their legislator. If the legislator chooses to introduce the bill to the Legislature, they ask the LCS to draft the language for the bill.

A bill can be introduced in either the House or the Senate or both, but it must pass both chambers to become law. It can also have more than one sponsor or can be joint legislation, meaning identical bills with different sponsors are introduced in both the House and the Senate. No matter how many sponsors a bill has, only the first sponsor is credited as the bill’s sponsor. Once a bill is introduced, the action that has been taken on it will be indicated by an abbreviation. (See the Appendix for the list of abbreviations and what they mean.)

Every bill must have a fiscal impact report (FIR) to determine how much its implementation will generate in revenue or cost the state. These are created by the staff of the Legislative Finance Committee (LFC) and are posted on the Legislature’s website. The FIR also gives a short summary of what the bill will do, so it’s a good resource when looking up legislation because it’s often easier to understand than the bill itself.

Generally, a bill is introduced by the sponsor or sponsors and then assigned to one, two or three committee hearings. The committee hearings provide an opportunity for the supporters and opponents of the bill to speak for or against it. The committee can choose to pass the bill with or without amendments, defeat it, or table it. Tabling a bill can either mean setting it aside for later consideration (to be added as an amendment onto a larger bill, such as an appropriation bill), or it can be a way of defeating a bill without recording a vote. The committee chair sets the agenda for the committee hearings – in other words, they decide which of the bills that have been assigned to the committee will be heard and when.

Technical Terms
Drafting – The actual writing of the bill.
Tabling – When a committee sets aside a bill for later consideration or to stall it as a way of defeating it.
Reporting – When a bill that has passed one committee or chamber is sent to the next committee or chamber for consideration.

When a bill passes the first committee, it goes to the next committee assignment (if there is one). After passing all assigned committees, it goes to the full House or Senate for a vote. Once it passes the House or Senate, the bill is reported to the other chamber for their action. That chamber will then assign it to one, two or three committees where the bill will have to pass before coming to the full chamber for a vote. A bill must pass both chambers in exactly the same form in order to go to the governor for their signature. If it is amended by one chamber it must go back to the other chamber for their concurrence.

A bill must have three “readings” (although they are never read aloud) in both the House and the Senate. A bill’s first reading is its introduction. Acceptance of a committee report is considered the second reading, and the floor debate and vote on the bill is considered the third reading. If a bill is passed with the same language by the full Senate and House, then it goes to the governor for their signature.

If the bill is passed before the last three days of the session, the governor has 72 hours to either sign or veto the bill. If the governor takes no action, then the bill is automatically enacted. If the bill is vetoed, the Legislature may override the veto with a vote of at least two-thirds of both chambers. If the bill is passed during the last three days of the session (which is usually the case), the governor has 20 days to sign or veto a bill. If the governor takes no action, then the bill is not enacted by what is called a “pocket veto.”

Advocacy Basics

Why Advocate

Elected officials do pay attention to their constituents. They want to know what matters to you, and they want to serve the interests of the voters in their district. Because our state has a relatively small population, our senators and representatives each serve a relatively small number of voters. That makes them more accessible to you, the constituent.

When you contact your elected officials, they know you care. Most will appreciate the knowledge that you bring to the subject and your interest in making life better for New Mexicans. Because our elected officials are ordinary citizens, most of whom work full-time jobs just like you, they need the input and expertise of others. They can’t be experts on every issue. Remember that the squeaky wheel gets the grease. Since they are going to rely on the expertise of others, you want to make sure that your voice is being heard.

When to Advocate

Perhaps the best time to begin to advocate is during the election campaign when you can help influence a candidate’s position on an issue or even influence the agenda of a campaign. After the election, you can try to influence the priorities of your newly elected (or re-elected) senators and representatives. Certainly, you’ll want to meet with legislators as early as possible before the legislative session begins. Once they get to Santa Fe, they are busy with hundreds of bills and cannot be expected to give you the time and attention you might like. Oftentimes, the most you can hope for during a busy session is to remind them of your prior conversations and their commitment to the cause.

After the legislative session, be sure to thank them for their support. It’s also a good idea to write to those who voted against the bill to express your disappointment. This should be done carefully and courteously, with an invitation to discuss the issue further. You never want to be too critical of a lawmaker whose vote you may need next time. Understand that they deal with numerous competing priorities and often must make compromises.

Whom to Target

Certainly, you will have the most sway with your own Senate and House representatives – they rely on voters like you to put and keep them in office. But you’ll also want to talk to legislators who sit on committees that will likely hear the legislation, the chairs of those committees, and the legislative leadership. An aggressive advocate would also meet with legislative staff and analysts, as well as officials from the department that will be affected by the legislation.

Before meeting with elected officials, find out what their particular interests and passions are. Most seek office because they care deeply about something and want to make a difference. Members of Congress all have websites that generally include this kind of information. Past issues of the local newspaper may be your best resource to find out more about your state officials – reporters usually seek out the bill’s sponsor (or big supporter) as well as the main opponent for comment when covering the session.

Don’t be afraid to meet with legislators who may not agree with you on the issue, because you still may find common ground. You need to educate your supporters as well as opponents about the issue if you’re to sway their actions and votes on it.

How to Advocate


The best way to educate or influence a lawmaker is to meet with them personally. You can do this individually or with a group. Simply call or write to them and ask them to meet with you about a particular issue. This provides the best format for educating them and gaining their support. Most legislators also hold town meetings before a legislative session. These public meetings are a good way to learn about their priorities and share about your own.

You may also use a personal meeting as an opportunity to invite the lawmaker to visit a site – a school, community centers, etc. – that is relative to legislation you’re supporting. If they accept, you’ll want to work to make sure the site visit will be an experience that supports your position. Consider what you want the visitor to see, whom you want them to meet, and what message you want them to take away. Having someone there who can share a personal story can be very effective. Also find out how much time the lawmaker has to devote to the visit so you can plan accordingly.

Phone Calls

You may also call their home or work before or after the legislative session. Phone calls during the session are usually taken by staff members who will relay your message. When legislators get phone calls by a large number of constituents during the legislative session, they know that the issue is important to voters back home.

Letters and Email

Personal letters to lawmakers are also effective, but they should always be brief, to the point, and courteous. Because a mailed letter may take a few days to reach your legislator, it is probably best to avoid sending them during the session, unless you personally deliver it to your legislator’s office at the state Capitol. Email communication with legislators can be effective because many use it as a way to communicate frequently with advocates and constituents.

Making Your Case

You want to be prepared when you meet with, call or write your legislator. Be clear about which issue you want to discuss, and whether you are representing yourself, an organization or a group.

Advocacy Etiquette
If you do get a chance to testify before a committee, follow these general guidelines:

  • Keep your presentation brief;
  • Start with a personal story that is then backed up by data;
  • Highlight what the legislation would achieve or who it would benefit; and
  • Be clear about the action you are requesting.

Research your issue thoroughly and make sure that your proposal is based on the evidence. An effective case combines both data or evidence and personal stories from real life. Any proposal that is argued solely on an emotional basis will have trouble passing legislative scrutiny. Any proposal that is rooted in accurate data but lacks a connection to real life could be considered irrelevant. Choose only two or three main points and always include a statement about what action you want the legislator to take.

Develop one-page position papers or fact sheets to leave with legislators after your meeting. This strengthens your argument and gives them something to refer back to for more information. Always include contact information for you or the group you are representing and cite your data sources.

If you are working in opposition to specific legislation, always offer an alternative when possible, such as a program that has worked well in another state. This way you’re working to solve the problem, not just block the legislation.

Some Simple But Important Do’s and Don’ts

Do make an appointment whenever possible and call if you are running late to a meeting.
Do be flexible and understanding if your meeting is cancelled, delayed, or ends up being with a staff member instead of your legislator.
Do identify yourself and which organization you are with, if applicable, each time you call or meet with your legislator.
Do be courteous, respectful, quick with gratitude, and slow to criticize.
Do be well organized, prepared, and if you’re working in coalition, be united.
Do refer to specific legislation by the bill number and know the status of the bill.
Do use both data and personal stories but be concise and to the point.
Do give them short, easy-to-read literature like fact sheets.
Do ask for what you want.
Do allow the legislator to ask questions or express their opinion (and follow-up with the answer if you don’t know it off hand).
Do understand and be able to address the other side of the argument.
Do keep the door open for further discussion.
Do report back to the lead person or organization if you’re working in coalition.

Don’t be late.
Don’t be argumentative, arrogant, condescending or threatening.
Don’t exaggerate the case.
Don’t overwhelm them with too much data.
Don’t make up answers. Say you don’t know and get back later with the correct information.
Don’t take more time than you were offered.
Don’t burn bridges. Leave the door open for further discussion, on this or other issues.

Committee Meetings and Hearings

Speaking during committee meetings and hearings can also be a very effective way of educating and lobbying legislators. All committee hearings are open to the public for observation. Some committee meetings and most hearings allow time for public comment, in which case you simply show up. Some require that you ask the chair of the committee if you may make a formal presentation to the committee about a specific issue.

To make your committee testimony most successful, it’s a good idea to both familiarize yourself with the committee membership and to attend a hearing by that committee on a different matter to get an idea of how the committee is run.

Advocacy Etiquette
Protocol requires that all comments made in committee are first directed to the chair of the committee. When testifying, always start by addressing the committee chair and the members with “Mr./Madam Chair and members of the committee.” Clearly identify yourself and your organization. When answering questions, always begin the answer with “Mr./Madam Chair” regardless of who asked the question. You can also name the member asking the question, such as: “Madam Chair and Representative Jones.” An acceptable fallback is always: “Mr. Chair and members of the committee.” Not only does this comply with legislative protocol, but it gives you some time to breathe and think before you answer the question. At the end of your testimony always thank the chair and members for the opportunity to present to them.

Be prepared for questions. Never make up an answer you don’t know. Tell the committee that you don’t have the requested information and will get back to them. And then make sure you do get the relevant information to the committee.

Know the Opposition

There is nothing worse than being blind-sided by the opposition and their arguments. It is critical to know who will oppose your issue and the arguments they will use. It’s good, too, to know if the opposition is organized and likely to present a unified front. Learn as much as you can about them and how they intend to oppose your issue. Writing out your responses to opposition arguments is a worthwhile exercise, so that you are prepared with the right answers. Sometimes you can even derail the opposition arguments by addressing them in advance with your own testimony that includes compelling data. When the opposition is likely to be organized, meet with opponents if possible and get to know the issue from their perspective. You may even find that you have some common ground.

Advocacy and the Media

Press releases, press conferences, op-ed pieces (guest editorials), letters to the editor, blog entries, and appearances on radio talk shows and TV should all be considered as possible means to get your message to legislators and to activate the public around an issue. Your media strategy should be developed as part of an overall campaign to promote the issue. Remember that the news media have limited time/space in which to present the news, and that your issue will be competing for the media’s attention with other issues and the events of the day. The news media has no obligation to cover your story, so the best approach is to let them know why your story is one they will want to cover.

A well-written op-ed is fairly easy to place, especially with smaller newspapers. Before you sit down to your computer, sit down with your local paper and read its editorial pages. This will give you an idea of what sorts of op-eds they run and how their editorial board leans politically. You can call the op-ed editor to pitch an idea before you write it or simply to find out what their word count and submission criteria are.

Staying on Message

When working with the media it is critically important to develop your message and then stay on message. Frame the issue the way that you want it framed. Take control of the debate and define it in your terms. Tell the story the way you want it told. If possible, hook the issue to a story that is current and local, so that news outlets will want to pick it up. When responding to reporter questions, remember to make the point that you think is most important even if it means not necessarily answering the direct question. Always be aware of what you do not want to say to the media and be disciplined about your message.

Advocacy Etiquette
With any legislative effort, the process ends with gratitude. Always take the time to thank the bill sponsors, legislative champions, supporters, and allies.

Keep the same things about framing in mind when you write an op-ed or letter to the editor. Address the opposition’s issues without restating their message. And again, your argument is strongest when you use both data and a personal story.

Be particularly cautious about letting your emotions get the best of you when posting on a blog. Because it is an immediate medium, it’s easy to get carried away in the heat of an argument. Take a deep breath before you post anything.

Coalition Building

One of the most effective means of promoting an issue is to have many messengers and advocates. Building a large and effective coalition strengthens your message and broadens your reach. Where some messengers can’t reach a legislator, another messenger can. The coalition should be united around the same goals and always carry the same message.

Showing grassroots voter support for an issue is invaluable. Polling data is helpful, but the ability to mobilize supporters is even more important. Having a network of organizations that can get their members to visit, call or write their legislators is perhaps the best way to win key legislative support. Email alerts can be used effectively when the email list is reliable and known to produce results. Otherwise, it’s best to just get on the phone and make calls to allies and get them to call legislators.


Rules for Non-profits

Many organizations have paid lobbyists to do their advocacy work. Most Americans don’t react with enthusiasm to the term ‘lobbyist.’ We think of lobbyists as representatives of big-money special-interest groups, who make deals with politicians in smoke-filled, back-room meetings. While there’s some truth to that cliché, it would not be an accurate description for every lobbyist. You may be surprised to know that many churches lobby on behalf of their congregations, non-profits lobby on behalf of their chosen cause, and even governmental departments lobby each other. That’s right. Every January when New Mexico’s Legislature is in session you can bet that professional lobbyists are working on behalf of several cities, counties, universities, and other public institutions – even our public school system.

Nonprofit organizations can and should lobby, but it is also important for those organizations to know their lobbying limitations. There are two kinds of lobbying: direct and indirect. Nonprofit organizations are legally able to use a small portion of their budget for both direct and indirect lobbying. Government funds are never to be used for lobbying, and some foundation funders also require that their grants not be used for lobbying purposes. To be safe, most non-profits that lobby use only private donations to pay for their lobbying efforts and are careful not to surpass the amount that the Internal Revenue Service will allow. (See the Resources section.)

Direct lobbying is communication between a lobbyist and a legislator or their staff members about specific legislation that expresses a view or makes a specific ask of that legislator. If the visit is to share information about a particular issue but does not address specific legislation or make a request of that legislator for their support, then it is not lobbying.

Technical Terms
Direct lobbying – Communication between a lobbyist and a legislator or their staff members (or a voter) about specific legislation that expresses a view or makes a specific ask of that legislator (or asks the voter to vote a certain way).
Indirect lobbying – Communication with the general public about a specific issue that asks them to contact their elected officials about specific legislation.

Indirect lobbying is communication with the general public about a specific issue that asks them to contact their elected officials about specific legislation. The rules about using mass emails, Listservs, and websites to activate the public about an issue can get very complex. These are important tools, however, so non-profits are encouraged to use them … just know the legal limits of what you can do. (See the Resources section.)

Many activities are not considered lobbying. Any report that is a nonpartisan analysis, provides a fair discussion of the issue, and includes only an indirect call to action is not lobbying. If the organization is asked in writing by a committee chair to provide technical assistance to that legislative committee, then that is expert testimony, not lobbying.

Any staff time or lobbying activity should be well documented as such and expensed toward either direct or indirect lobbying funds. Any activity that does not cost the organization money is not considered lobbying.

The Role of the Lobbyist

Some organizations have their own lobbyist on staff or will hire a lobbyist on contract. The lobbyist plays an important role in tracking legislation, must know the legislative process and the players, and should constantly be tracking legislation. Even so, getting legislation passed (or defeated) takes a coordinated effort on the part of many people.

The lobbyist enlists legislators to sponsor a bill who will be aggressive, knowledgeable, and willing to make the bill a priority. The lobbyist then checks to make sure the bill is drafted according to the wishes of the backers and the sponsor. They then track the bill daily – from its being drafted by the Legislative Council Services, to introduction, committee hearings, committee reports, floor votes, and action taken by the governor. The lobbyist visits with legislators to gain support for the bill and activates the media and grassroots campaigns as necessary to help assure success. When a bill is scheduled for a committee hearing the lobbyist should know when it is important to call for expert testimony, crowds of supporters, phone calls to legislators and/or media coverage, or when it is better to let the bill move along the process quietly, saving the mobilization efforts for when they are needed.


Lobbying Rules
The Alliance for Justice
New Mexico Secretary of State

Tracking Legislation
Bill Finder
My Roundhouse (to sign up for emails regarding specific bills)

New Mexico Government Contact Info
Chief Clerk of the House: 505-986-4751
Chief Clerk of the Senate: 505-986-4714
Governor’s Office: 505-476-2200
Legislative Council Services: 505-986-4600
Legislative Publications
Legislature: 505-986-4300 (Find My Legislator)
Lt. Governor’s Office: 505-476-2250
New Mexico state website
State Capitol switchboard: 505-986-4600

Congressional Contact Info
U.S. Capitol switchboard: 202-224-3121
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. Senate


Standing Legislative CommitteesCommittees that meet during the legislative session

House Committees
Agriculture, Acequias & Water Resources
Appropriations & Finance
Commerce & Economic Development
Consumer & Public Affairs
Energy, Environment & Natural Resources
Government, Election & Indian Affairs
Health & Human Services
Labor, Veterans’ & Military Affairs
Rules & Order of Business
Rural Development, Land Grants & Cultural Affairs
Taxation & Revenue
Transportation, Public Works & Capital Improvements

Senate Committees
Committees’ Committee
Health & Public Affairs
Indian, Rural & Cultural Affairs
Tax, Business & Transportation

Interim CommitteesBicameral committees that meet when the Legislature is not in session
Capitol Buildings Planning Commission
Capitol Security Subcommittee
Courts, Corrections & Justice
Economic & Rural Development & Policy Committee
Indian Affairs
Interim Legislative Ethics
Investments & Pensions Oversight
Land Grant
Legislative Council
Legislative Education Study
Legislative Finance
Legislative Health & Human Services
Military & Veterans’ Affairs
Mortgage Finance Authority Act Oversight
New Mexico Finance Authority Oversight
Public School Capital Outlay Oversight Task Force
Radioactive & Hazardous Materials
Revenue Stabilization & Tax Policy
Science, Technology & Telecommunications
Tobacco Settlement Revenue Oversight
Transportation Infrastructure Revenue Subcommittee
Water & Natural Resources

Abbreviations for Actions on Legislation
* Emergency clause. Bills become effective as soon as they are signed by the governor. (If a bill passes by less than the required two-third’s vote, this symbol is deleted.)
[30] Legislative day (as opposed to a calendar day).
API Action postponed indefinitely.
CC Conference committee. This entry follows when the Senate and House fail to agree on amendments to a bill.
CS Committee substitute. (This entry, following a DNP report, indicates the committee’s substitute bill. Succeeding entries will record the action on the committee substitute.)
CS/H 18 Committee substitute for House Bill 18.
DNP DO NOT PASS committee report adopted.
DNP nt adptd DO NOT PASS committee report NOT adopted.
DP DO PASS committee report adopted.
DP/a DO PASS, as amended, committee report adopted.
FAILED/H (or/S) Failed passage in House; sometimes followed by announced vote: FAILED/H (22 48).
FL/ Floor substitute. (Succeeding entries will record the action on the floor substitute.)
fl/a Floor amendment adopted. (Fl/aaa = three floor amendments adopted.)
germane Bills that fall within the purview of a 30-day session.
h/fld cncr House has failed to concur in Senate amendments on a House bill.
HPREF House Pre-file
PASSED/S (or/H) Passed Senate; always followed by announced vote: PASSED/S (39 0).
rcld frm/h Bill recalled from the House for further consideration by the Senate.
re ref Re referred to committee for subsequent action.
s/cncrd Senate has concurred in House amendments on a Senate bill.
SCS/H 18 Senate committee substitute for House Bill 18. (CS, preceded by the initial of the opposite chamber, indicates a substitute for a bill made by the other chamber. The listing, however, will continue under the original bill entry.)
s/fld recede This procedure could follow if the Senate refuses to recede from its amendments.
SGND(C.A.2) Constitutional amendment and its number.
SGND Signed by one or both houses (for legislation not requiring governor’s signature).
SGND(Mar.4)Ch.9 Signed by the governor, date and chapter number.
SPREF Senate Pre-file
s/rcnsrd Previous action reconsidered by the Senate.
STB or CPB or STBR In the title of the bill, indicates funding by Severance Tax Bonds (STB), Capital Project Bonds (CPB) or Severance Tax Bonds Reauthorization (STB).
T On the House speaker’s table by rule (temporary calendar).
tbld Tabled temporarily by motion.
TBLD INDEF Tabled indefinitely.
w/drn Withdrawn from committee for subsequent action.
w/drn h/cal Withdrawn from House calendar for subsequent action.
w/o rec WITHOUT RECOMMENDATION committee report adopted.
VETO(Mar.7) Vetoed by the governor and date.

Legislative Publications Available from the Legislative Council Services

  • Committee Studies
  • Constitutional Amendments (Arguments for and Against)
  • Information Bulletins
  • Interim Committee Reports
  • Legal Notices and Advertisements
  • Legislative Rules and Handbooks

Download this advocacy guide (updated July 2023; 16 pages; pdf)
Link to A Guide to New Mexico’s Tax System
Link to A Guide to the New Mexico State Budget
Link to the Advocate’s Guide to the New Mexico State Budget